Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids, found in leafy greens, as well as yellow and orange fruits and vegetables. Research supports that these natural plant pigments build healthy Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), can improve contrast in vision and recovery from glare, and improve protection of the eyes from high energy blue light wavelength.
The Value of Measurement of Macular Carotenoid Pigment Optical Densities and Distributions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Other Retinal Disorders. Vision Res. 2010 Mar 31; 50(7): 716–728.
Lutein across the Lifespan: From Childhood Cognitive Performance to the Aging Eye and Brain. Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2019
The Value of Measurement of Macular Carotenoid Pigment Optical Densities and Distributions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Other Retinal Disorders. Vision Res. 2010 Mar 31;50(7):716-28.
A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Photostress Recovery, Glare Disability, and Chromatic Contrast. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Dec 2;55(12):8583-9.
Macular pigment: influences on visual acuity and visibility. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2002 Mar;21(2):225-40.
Xanthophyll accumulation in the human retina during supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin – the LUXEA (LUtein Xanthophyll Eye Accumulation) study. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Volume 458, Issue 2, 15 February 2007, Pages 128-135
Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience.
J Optom. 2010 Apr; 3(2): 74–90.
Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of its constituent carotenoids following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: The LUNA study.
Experimental Eye Research Volume 84, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 718-728
Effect of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Macular Pigment and Visual Function in Patients with Early Age-related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology Volume 119, Issue 11, November 2012, Pages 2290-2297
Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, V: Effects of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and n–3 Fatty Acids on Retinal Sensitivity to Blue-Light–Induced Damage. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2011, Vol.52, 3934-3942.
Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photooxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine Volume 53, Issue 6, 15 September 2012, Pages 1298-1307
Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation and Association With Visual Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science January 2015, Vol.56, 252-258.
Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health. Clinics in Dermatology Volume 27, Issue 2, March–April 2009, Pages 195-201
Macular Pigment and Healthy Vision. Journal of Optometry, 2009.
A 12-week lutein supplementation improves visual function in Chinese people with long-term computer display light exposure. British Journal of Nutrition. Volume 102, Issue 228 July 2009 , pp. 186-190 Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin:
The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Volume 50, January 2016, Pages 34-66
Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers Protect against Light-Induced Retinopathy via Decreasing Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in BALB/cJ Mice. Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 842;
The Lipofuscin Fluorophore A2E Mediates Blue Light–Induced Damage to Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2000, Vol.41, 1981-1989.
Rhodopsin-Mediated Blue-Light Damage to the Rat Retina: Effect of Photoreversal of Bleaching. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science February 2001, Vol.42, 497-505.
Retinal Neuron Is More Sensitive to Blue Light-Induced Damage than Glia Cell Due to DNA Double-Strand Breaks. Cells 2019, 8(1), 68.
The glare hypothesis of macular pigment function. Stringham JM, Hammond BR. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Sep;84(9):859-64.
Macular pigment and visual performance under glare conditions. Stringham JM, Hammond BR. Optom Vis Sci. 2008 Feb;85(2):82-8.
The Photobiology of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Eye.Roberts JE, Dennison J. J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:687173.
Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photooxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Bian Q, Gao S, Zhou J, Qin J, Taylor A, Johnson EJ, Tang G, Sparrow JR, Gierhart D, Shang F. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Sep 15;53(6):1298-307.